BROOKE'S TRUST SCHOOL - Laurie Thorp
Thorne and district Local History Association
Occasional paper No 6
The circumstances of the founding of the school are related in several books. William Brooke, a tanner of Thorne, bequeathed the rents from a number of listed properties to 'support one able sober learned and sufficient schoolmaster'. The school was not to offer free education, except to 'ten of the poorest boys within the said town of Thorne'.
That was in 1704. Then follows a virtual blank. There are no 18th century documents in the Trust archives, or indeed any later school log books, staff lists or any registers.
In the Visitation Returns made to Archbishop Herring in 1743, the Vicar Thomas Tennant stated clearly that 'the only Charity School in Thorne was the Petty School' where thirty were educated free by John Moxon. This Petty (i.e. Junior) school was the one endowed by Henry Travis. A few years later, the York Faculty Book records licences to teach in the Brooke's Charity School being granted to John Atkinson, Clerk, in 1750, and to Lancelot Todhunter, Clerk, in 1793. Atkinson became Vicar at Thorne from 1789 to 1802, and Todhunter from 1802 to 1806.
By the middle of the 19th century the income from the rents had risen to around £150, a considerable sum. The incumbent was automatically taking on the additional role of teacher, to the increasing dissatisfaction of many of the townsfolk who saw this salary as a sinecure.
A report made on the Charity in 1827 recorded that the 'Rev. Eric Rudd instructs any children sent to him' but pointed out that they averaged only six. In his later years it was alleged that 'by raising fees, he had reduced the day boys attending to the bare number of the free-scholars', who were then taught on his behalf by an usher, 'while, on the other hand, he had taken a number of boarders of a class for whom the school was probably not intended'. On his death in 1856, the townspeople petitioned the Charity Commissioners for an enquiry.
Alerted by this, a majority of the Trustees and other influential inhabitants proposed an amalgamation with the Travis Trust and the building of three schools- boys', girls' and infants'. They engaged the retired Attorney General to prepare and embody such a scheme. An unnamed philanthropist promised a donation of £300. The case was conducted by counsel, affidavits were presented, but the Chief Clerk to the Court of the Rolls eventually decided against amalgamation. During this period the school Trust was not being fully administered. In fact the Brook's schoolhouse and Master’s residence was being hired by the Travis Trust which had no building of its own in Thorne.
In 1860, one of the regulations written into a new Scheme for the Trust required the governors 'to resume the possession of the House and Schoolroom, and repair, enlarge or replace them, upon the same site'. Thomas Shaw, one of the best known Leeds architects was employed to design a new School and Residence. Tenders were invited by the end of the year for its building, which cost £700. It opened in August 1862. The dispossessed Travis Trust found funds to double a donation of £400 from Miss Kitching and built its own school in Church Street.
Eighty five applied for the post of Brooke's School Master. The Trustees shortlisted the candidates at a meeting in the Court House, Thorne, on March 26th 1862, and the following month John Constable, Associate of the College of Preceptors, Master of the Boys’ School at Christleton, Chester, was appointed Master at a salary of £70 pa plus half the boys' capitation fees. He was 26 years old. Reminiscing at the end of his career, he recalled that on the day the school opened only two boys attended.
The curriculum was specified; boys aged 6 to 16 and 'of good character' were to study reading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography, book keeping, land surveying, drawing, singing and whatsoever the Governors added to ensure a ‘sound, moral, religious and useful education'.
The number of boarders grew to 30. Approaching retirement, Constable admitted that “he had had to subsist mainly on the profit derived from the boarders' fees'.
The governors recognised his problems and augmented his income by a further £14 by appointing him 'Clerk and Collector to the Trust' and in other little ways. The total he received in one year, 1895, was £243:19:7 out of which he had to pay three assistants, heat, light and clean the school etc.
The 1877 Revision extended the curriculum somewhat, in that Natural Science, Latin and at least one foreign European language were also to be taught. The minimum age for admission was raised to 7 years. In 1895 twenty boys were studying Latin and a similar number spent four hours per week on French. The ‘strong point of the school’ was agreed to be Mathematics; lack of laboratory space restricted Science to Mechanics and Physiology.
The governors were keen to upgrade the school even more. The new Regulations allowed the provision of extra rooms to accommodate about 60 day boys and 20 boarders. The dormitories were built over the kitchen and a 'pupils room', holding eight and twelve beds respectively. By 1895, there was an additional room with three beds in use and a further five boys slept in cottages across the road rented by two of the Head’s sons. The Board Room on the ground floor of the Master's house was pressed into service as a Dining Hall. There were no playing fields. The yard behind the school became too small for the numbers attending; it was also ‘closed in, so that the conveniences could only be emptied through the Head’s House'. There was, as yet, no mains water supply.
In notes made at the time, George Kenyon had added Navigation to the list. Constable aimed to create a Grammar School; there is a reference to Latin being taught in 1865. The Master, a full time teacher now, was to be a member of the Church of England, and had to conduct prayers morning and evening, and explain the Holy Scriptures and Catechism. Parents were to supply books and teaching materials for their sons' use, except in the case of the ten free "foundation scholars".
Depending on their circumstances, other parents were to pay 2d, 6d or 1s per week. Inspecting the school on behalf of the Charity Commissioners in 1865, J G Fitch noted that the tuition fees for 73 boys totalled only £12:9:0. Six years later Constable took in the school's first boarder, probably through economic necessity. In 1875 there were seven boarders, four in the Master’s house, three in a cottage rented by him. The school was now attracting "a better class of boy" according to Constable, and the 53 on roll paid £37:8:0 in tuition fees during the year.
The Head had by now followed Fitch's recommendation to appoint an assistant master. Unfortunately the Trust regulations made no provision for extra salaries. Even though assistants were young, unqualified and accordingly poorly paid, Constable soon found his fixed income too low. 1877 brought a revision of the regulations. The Head's salary was raised to £100. The maximum charge for boarders was fixed at £30 pa. Unfortunately the provision for Assistants was still left vague; from time to time the Governors gave 'gratuities, bonuses or allowances’ towards their salaries (e.g. £40 in 1894 when the two assistants' salaries totalled £100), but the responsibility for engaging and paying other teachers remained with the Master.
Only one of Constable's sons followed his father into teaching. Charles gained experience in York and Hackney before taking his BA degree at Durham. By 1895 Charles was Deputy Head at Thorne, looking for ways to supplement what must have been a low salary.
|C. F. CONSTABLE, M.A.
Hons. in Math. and Physical Science.
W.R.C.C.Teacher’s Certificate (621).
Art certificate, Board of education (21766).
32 years’ experience.
Head master since 1893.
The WRCC was then encouraging evening classes, 'Science and Arts Classes' and 'Technical Day Classes'. Charles Constable claimed to be fully qualified and recognised to teach seven Science and five Art subjects. An inspector visited the school in April 1896 and specified the structural alterations and apparatus which would be needed before the County Council would consider awarding Science and Arts grants.
In August a decision was reached to add a 'technical classroom'. This was built the
following year at a cost of £450 to plans by H B Thorp, Goole's leading architect. Regarding payment, the Governors accepted a scale proposed by Charles, that if the classes earned £20, he should receive £15; if £80 he should keep £55. In Feb. 1899 the Governors reported that the school had never been more prosperous, with 70 boys on roll. The Head’s salary for that term (including 1 year as Clerk) totalled £92 0s 11d, while Charles had earned £48 for his Classes. Some at least of these were held 'in the village' and attended by some of the boys who were excused Prep on such evenings.
Towards the end of 1902, the WRCC announced that their Inspectors would visit the school under the provisions of the 1899 Board of Education Act. The unfavourable report came several months later. John Constable's draft reply, in copperplate handwriting, expresses his consternation. The three Inspectors had not criticized the school on the day of their visit, and the annual Report by the Inspector had always been complimentary. In fact these yearly events were conducted by someone nominated by the Trustees – invariably the Vicar of a nearby Parish, Crowle, Stainforth, Messingham etc, who was rewarded with a £4 fee.
Constable was amazed to read that the Science Laboratory built and equipped to WRCC specification was now reported to be 'not well assigned or fitted suitably'. The lessons in Business Methods which followed the text book of Mr Graham, one of the Inspectors, was condemned as 'unsuitable teaching'.
Other statements offer an insight into the organisation of the school. Moveable screens divided the large single classroom into three small parts. Although Constable had retained responsibility for the general work of the school e.g. 'in style, penmanship and neatness' Charles was in practice in control of the teaching. There was a second Assistant Mr Hardy, aged 29, and a Music Master who besides teaching Piano also no pupil teacher, wrote Constable, "but a lad fresh from the Yorkshire Society’s School, London, was engaged gratuitously in private study and gave help occasionally".
He resented the Inspectors' reference to the 'cheapness of the school'. The popularity of Thorne Grammar School was based on the education and career success it offered to boys. On the contrary, Thorne residents considered that the tuition fees of £3 3s 0d were high enough, he noted. The inspectors had recommended that they be raised to £5. Thorne’s £33 pa for boarders should be compared with Doncaster's £30-40, 'it was no cheaper than Rotherham or Drax, and more expensive than Gainsborough, Wakefield or Archbishop Holgate’s School in York which charges £28'.
He denied that the dormitories were overcrowded, and listed the evening activities, drawing and painting, fret work, photography, concerts, recitals, readings, chess, draughts and bagatelle. A visitor took shorthand classes.
The Governors held a special meeting on August 13th, and realised that John Constable should now be persuaded to retire. He had considered this in 1901 but had never been able to save in preparation for retirement. The 1877 Scheme had made provision for superannuation, if the Governors felt fit. The head and Trustees would have contributed equals amounts, to provide a pension on the Head's retirement or breakdown of health. The scheme had never been implemented, but now the governors mentioned a possible pension of £50.
John Constable thanked them for this in his letter of August 12th, admitting that 'the post requires a younger man – more up – to – date.' 'I cannot take this step without great pain and regret, still I must bow to the inevitable. Your old and faithful servant, John Constable'. He was 67 years old. The pension turned out to be a 'gratuity' of £25 and a letter to his son, J W Constable, now Vicar in Uppingham, pointing out that he should help to support his father. Similar gratuities were paid each year until 1908 when only £12:10:0 was given, and nothing in 1909 because there were insufficient funds.
Constable retained his position in Thorne society, serving on the Parish Council, Isolation Hospital and Water Supply committees until 1909, two years before his death in April 1911.
CHARLES FLACK CONSTABLE, John's son, was appointed Headmaster. During his first term, Mr Houghton, a WRCC Inspector spoke to the Trustees about the many advantages of replacing TGS with a purpose built co-educational school, then termed a dual school. The present building was only suitable for 40 boys; to adopt it to 75 would cost well over £2000, whereas a new dual school for 100, dispending with borders, would cost less than £4000 of which the WRCC would provide half. The governors were impressed.
Meanwhile Charles was doing his best to rectify the weaknesses noted by the Inspectors, negotiating for playing fields, ordering repairs and supplies (new wall maps, new inkwells …) and most importantly persuading the governors to authorise the employment of better qualified staff; in 1904 a Science graduate Mr Gibling at a salary of £85 – 100 and in 1906 a Classics and French master Mr Duffin at £120. When Mr Hardy matriculated at Durham his salary was raised by £10. This was by far the best qualified staff ever at Thorne.
Unfortunately it coincided with a Board of Education decision to withdraw grants for Science & Art Classes unless the school was recognised as a Secondary school. Thorne was not recognised. However there were other possible sources of income – boys on County Minor Scholarship, and Intending Pupil Teachers. Seven such IPTs, 15 and 16 years old, from Goole attended TGS in 1904, and suitable text books were bought. At the end of his first year, Charles listed the progress made; excellent examination results, Business Methods had been discontinued to allow more time for Science, Shorthand was now taken by permanent staff and a variety of healthy out of school activities encouraged.
However another inspection by the WRCC in 1906 again emphasised the school's inadequacies – cramped teaching and playground areas, 'a small dining room which does not seem either clean or cheerful' and 'access to school through an extremely small passage which successfully forbids the entrance of Inspectors’. The Assistant staff were also criticized, especially the master in charge of Juniors, an Irishman whose 'manner of speaking makes it difficult to understand him’. Yet the report ends with the positive ‘The boys seem very keen on their work and the Headmaster certainly has great enthusiasm'.
Of the eighty boys, seventeen came from Goole, where a Dual school would soon open. There was urgent need for reorganisation in Thorne;
the WRCC suggested a new Dual school there for
T. G. S. SWIMMING CLUB.
More than 200 have been taught to swim by the Head Master
Three Old Boys, together with the Head Master, have received the Humane Society's
Parchment for Saving Life.
The Football Club
There was an inspection in 1908. This time the toilet facilities were condemned. A Goole Secondary School was due to open the following year, 'the desirability of the continued existence of TGS' came to the fore; the WRCC circulated copies of its own proposals – a Rural Secondary School like the newly opened one at Knaresborough, but with a widened curriculum in keeping with Thorne’s projected mine, geology, mechanics and industrial economics being added. It would cost £5000. To add force to their plans, there were to be no more WRCC grants, (then running at c £168 pa), to TGS.
Immediately, Canon Littlewood, Chairman of the Governors visited Knaresborough, and found that only its Head Master and Senior Mistress were graduates and that no classical or foreign language teaching was attempted. Charles Constable was more favourably impressed.
The Governors bowed to WRCC pressure and in June 1909, Constable was given six months' notice that TGS would close in December. He approached the Governors in November for permission to run TGS as private school, but was informed that the terms of the trust would not allow this. The WRCC asked for the return of a box of library books.
The Parish Council, foreseeing Thorne without any kind of Secondary School urged that 'no effort be spared to induce the Board of Education to allow the School to continue in accord with the 1877 scheme'. Surprisingly the Board quickly rescinded the closure, and on January 24th it was decided that the school should continue to run, but without grants. The Head’s salary was cut back to the 1877 level of £100 + £1 capitation. There was to be no extra pay for assistants. The school struggled on a couple of years, when Charles Constable suddenly died following a seizure. He was 42. The two Assistants, C T Archer and Jno Crilicos, shared the teaching load for the rest of the term. Although the Board of Education argued the case for immediate closure a new Headmaster was appointed at the end of April 1912.
JAMES WOODHEAD BA of St Martins Grammar School, Scarbrough, brought his own Assistants – his wife, son and daughter. He summarily dismissed Archer and Crilicos, who started a legal action which resulted in the Trust paying a total of £48 in compensation and legal expenses.
Woodheads appointment hit the Doncaster headlines on May 3rd 1912. It had coincided with a debate at Wakefield when Alderman Hardaker of Brighouse had compared the TGS dormitories unfavourably with 'a common lodge' and where the Second Assistant was paid 'the princely sum of £5 a year'. In the Doncaster Gazette, James Servant corrected this as £5 a term and protested that there had been no case of infectious disease for fifty years.
A reporter from the Doncaster Chronicle visiting TGS found it 'in a perfect state of repair, the two dormitories not in the least overcrowded, the dining room of ample proportions', the boys had an asphalted playground and access to two playing fields.
One year later Woodhead was in financial difficulties. The Governors agreed to buy from him dormitory furniture and mattresses worth £33. The following year he wrote on behalf of his two Assistants, 'who have served two years without salary', whereas he understood that ‘bonuses had been paid to his predecessors'. His son was given a 'gratuity of £10' his daughter £5, with no pledge of future payments. The number of boys had by now dropped to 27, of whom only four were boarders.
In April 1915, he requested a loan of £60, which the trustees said would not be legal. Then, without warning the Governors sent for the Headmaster, when the Chairman 'commented in strong terms upon his reported misconduct, which he considered most disreputable and calculated to bring discredit and militate against the attendance of both pupils and boarders of the school'. Woodhead replied that 'the reports were not correct, and had been much exaggerated'. Nevertheless after discussion, he was asked to give in his notice within a few days. There are no details of the Head’s 'misconduct'. One suspects it may have been a rumour of some financial irregularity. The terms of his appointment had specified six months notice, and the Governors negotiated £21 compensation to ensure repossession of the house during the summer break.
R H ALBERY, Principal of Earlestown County Technical School was remarkably well qualified – M Sc, LL M, B Sc Hons (Victoria), LL B Hons (Liverpool), Int B Sc Hons (London), Oliver Lodge Physics Prizeman, University Law Prizeman, Education Prizeman, Rouble King's Medallist. He was appointed Head, others for interview travelling from Wrexham, North Shields, Peterborough, Colchester and Cirencester.
It was now the middle of the Great War, 1914-1918, and the Governors appealed successfully for his exemption from Military Service. Two 'American Teas' were held in the Town Hall, one for the school, the other for Albery. There were apparently no boarders; Albery suggested that a Junior Department for 7-9yrs old be started.
In November 1917 he resigned 'having another appointment'. He had appreciated his friendly relations with the Governors 'who have very much assisted in mitigating the many hardships that I have experienced in connection with the school'.
The Rev. GERALD OSCAR MORGAN SMITH, MA, F C S, took over the school, the best of only four applicants. There were 45 boys at the school paying 1 guinea per term, fees which were soon raised to £5 per year to keep them in line with other Grammar Schools.
In May 1919 he asked for structural alterations – the repositioning of the partitions in the schoolroom, the conversation of the darkroom into two WCs, 'one for the maids, the other for emergency use by the boarders'. We are not told how many boarders there were at that time. He also requested 'the connection of hot water to the master's bath'. School and house had had piped water since 1914. The number of boys rose to 59 in 1919 and to 73 in 1921, the year Morgan Smith resigned.
The Rev. J BILTON LANGSTAFF of Kevenham was the next Headmaster. Soon after his appointment, he had an unofficial visit from Mr Hall, WRCC Director of Secondary Education, who reopened the matter of building a school 'between Goole and Doncaster'. Hall pointed out that 'it would be wise to ensure it was at Thorne'. The Head reported back to the Governors and negotiations between the Trust and the WRCC were resumed. 'If a site could be offered, it would ensure Thorne's claim'. The Trust owned land in Thorne.
Meanwhile the school was now attracting 77 boys, which included in 1923 ten boarders, and it was decided to raise tuition fees to £7 10s 0d, which would allow higher salaries to be offered to staff with good qualifications.
The discussion at Governors' Meeting was in the main centred on the new school. It was also the topic of a Conference arranged by the WRCC held in the Public Library in May 1924. Three fields 'near the North Eastern Station' were offered, but the WRCC Surveyor preferred 'the gravel pit field' which would provide excellent playing fields. This site did not belong to the Trust, but the Governors set about purchasing the 'Elmhirst land', soon referred to as the Church Balk site.
After three and a half years as Head, Langstaff resigned, 'to enter a new venture, a wider sphere of usefulness'. He was thanked for his work in increasing the number of boys, and raising the tone of the school. It was 1924 the new Head would be offered an appointment to run until the WRCC became responsible for all Thorne’s Secondary education.
This time there were 100 applicants! The Governors short listed twelve, highlighting their choice of four favourites, then diplomatically asked advice from the WRCC’s Director Mr Hallam. He added a further three to be called to interview, including Mr J E Shipley Turner, who was appointed to take over the headship on 17 October 1924.
Mr SHIPLEY TURNER's first requests were for improvements to the school's ventilation, a piano and interview expenses for an Assistant teacher. The Governors thought an interview for an Assistant unnecessary. There were only three boarders attending and the day boys were down to 55. Like Albery in 1916, Shipley Turner considered the established of a 'kindergarten under a young lady teacher'. In 1925 he happily reported that he proposed to utilise a valuable Lecture Lantern he had found on the premises, using slides from Wakefield. 'The cost of oxygen and a length of rubber tubing would be a trifling expense'.
The WRCC’s Inspectors showed their confidence in Shipley Turner in deciding not to advertise the post of Headmaster in the new school. He took the opportunity to replace both his Assistants; he had already appointed a part time music teacher, the church choirmaster Mr L Ward at a salary of £2 12s 6d per term. Mr Ward retired forty years later.
Preparations for the new school were now well advanced, the WRCC taking all decisions on the site and room layout, the equipment etc. It was Shipley Turner's own idea to move the clock from its tower to the façade of the new building.
The future roll of the Trust was discussed. Places at the new TGS would be awarded to boys and girls who had passed the County Minor Scholarship examination. The Trust would still finance ten Foundation Scholars who would be selected by a similar examination. One of the last entries in the Governors' Minute Book, for 1937, records the payment to the WRCC of £31 10s 0d for such scholars. The remainder of the Trust income should in future be used to provide Leaving Scholarships for ex-TGS students. The Governors also considered another role, that of paying for 'decent clothing for the ten scholars' if necessary.
The Board of Education proposed to transfer the title Thorne Grammar School to the new school. That name was still in use until 2005, although confusingly, since the school was fully comprehensive from 1973.
Enough of the new building was ready by Easter 1930 for the boys to be transferred there. Thus for its photograph, the 1930 Brooke's School Cricket Team posed before the main door of the new school. Meanwhile as the WRCC was short of accommodation for elementary school children, it rented for £100 pa four ground floor rooms in what was, for the first time, called the Old Grammar School.
Mr Shipley Turner continued to live in the Head's house and rented its' orchard. South Common (Greentop) school opened in 1939, leaving the Old Grammar School available for use as a training centre for Air Raid Wardens. In 1945 it was once more taken back by the WRCC Education Committee for use as an Annexe to the now overcrowded TGS. Staff Meeting minutes for 16.5.46 include 'provisional arrangements' for travel between the two 'by way of Church St and King St – not in a crocodile'. By the end of the term, the problems of loss of time caused by journeying and its subsequent effects on the standard of work were being aired. Over the next few years, post-war austerities and the age of the building contributed to the worries – shortage of desks and stools, possible gas leaks needing investigation, etc.
The 1960s bulge in the primary school population necessitated that the Old School be brought into use once again for Thorne's younger children.
In August 1973, the Thorne RDC recommended that the buildings should be registered by the County Planning Officer as of historic interest, but no further action seems to have been taken. The property was sold in 1978 for commercial use.
ASSISTANT STAFF. It is not possible to reconstruct a full list. These are mentioned in the Minutes, etc.
- Mr W READ BA; Thorne aged 16; Margate 1903
- Mr W G SMITH BA; Thorne aged 16; Cranbourne 1903
- Mr A SPOFFORTH; Thorne 16; Whitgift S, Croydon ‘03
- Mr J HODSON BA; Started Thorne at 16
1905 Mr H HARDY; Matriculated Durham '06
1906 Mr T W GIBLING BSc
1907 Mr C H DUFFIN; French & Latin
1907 Mr HODGSON; (salary enquiry)
1907 Mr Q K PEACOCK; (term salary £26:13:4)
1907 Mr R B HEATON; (term salary £16:13:4)
1908 Mr E O YATES; (salary £40 pa)
1909 Mr J MACKNEY; (salary £40 pa)
1909 Mr J G WILSON; (term salary £16:13:4)
1909 Mr I W WILLIAMS; (£40 pa), 'acceptable to WRCC'
1909 Mr C ARCHER; (term £12), dismissed, £30 compensation
1909 Mr CRILICOS; dismissed, sued, paid £8:10:0
1923 Mr LLOYD; (salary £90 pa)
1926 Mr EDWARDS; left (salary £100 pa)
1927 Mr GENT; (salary raised to £115), senior maths '29
1927 Mr L WARD; (term salary £2:12:6) part time music
1928 Mr BLOODWORTH; (salary increase of £10 pa) left ‘29
1929 Mr IDRIS JONES MA; appointed
FOUNDATION SCHOLARS The only pupils named in the Minutes are the free scholars. During the 19th century selection was by examination, and so the stipulation of their being 'of the poorest boys' was ignored.
1888 H W Arbuckle 1894 GRACE 1895 DAWSON
1896 John Spofforth
1897 Maleham, Smith, Thomas Barley, G. Brackenbury
1898 J T Thorley
1901 R Gravil, F Bevitt, R Bleasby
1903 Edward Grey, G Hanby, Charles Burrows
1904 Edward Thorley, Richard Yates, Wilfred Percy Matthewman, William Shipley, Herbert Harry Hunt
1905 Ralph Raper, Frank Thrustle, Henry Crampton, Arthur Straker
1906 Hector Prior
1907 Ernest Hodson, Wm Sanderson
1908 Harry Matthewman, Fred Harrison, Frank Wilson
1909 Alfred Maleham (son of the stationmaster), Edwin Norman Prior (son of Mr P. grocer), W Webster (of Finkle St)
1910 H Muscroft, G Fells, W Gravil 1911 Oswald Barley
1912 Thos Shirtliff, Edwin Hirst (son of J W Hirst), Edward Thustle, Clarence Sharpe, Winston Harrison, Ernest William Usher (of Moorends)
1913 Raymond Halkon (of Dykesmarsh), Maurice Durham (son of Chas D), Cyril Isle (son of J W Isle)
1914 William Hirst (son of J W Hirst), Frank Lister (son of Frank Lister, Finkle St)
1915 Albert Lister (son of Edmund L), Harold Muscroft
1916 Normanton Hemingway, Francis Maleham (son of Edmund M, stationmaster), John Harrison (son of Geo H, butcher), Arthur Brown (son of Fred B), John Brown, Peter Smith, Ernest Maleham (son of Edmund M), Vernon Harrison (son of George H), Harold Brameld, George Raper (son of William R), Hubert Oliver, Sidney Ward, Thomas Nixon
1922 R Dennis, W Farrand
1932 Hugh Arbuckle, Ronald Miller
1937 Ken Hood, Charles R Waller, Harry Chapman, Thomas W Jackson, Nelson Holland
THE ARCHITECTS Thomas Shaw, of Park Row, Leeds designed the first of the Leeds Italianate factory chimneys – an adaptation of the Lamberti Tower in Verona – on Hardings' wire works which was afterwards known as the Tower Works.
H B Thorp of Paradise Place, Goole was the architect of Bank Chambers, the building which houses the Goole Council Chambers.
SOURCES Most of the information on which this study is based has been taken from the archives of the Trust deposited in Doncaster on restricted access. These are indexed SR/122/ A1/1, A4/1,2, A6/1,2
Other sources are indicated by the italic letters in the page margins
a. Archbishop Herring's Visitation Returns 1743. YAS
b. York Faculty Books.Borthwick Institute, York
c. Charity Commissioners' Return of Endowed Charities, (Vol 5) 1899
d. Tomlinson. Rambles Twenty Miles Around Doncaster.1869
e. Thorne & District Monthly Illustrated Journal 1888
f. WRCC Education Committee Archives. Brotherton Library, Leeds University
Published by Thorne Local History Society
Supported by Thorne Moorends Regeneration Partnership
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